Centrosome: A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. The centrosome has two centrioles.
Chromatin: The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When a cell is not dividing, it exists in dispersed form, in long, thin fibers.
Crista: An infolding of the inner membrane of mitochondrion that houses electron transport chains and molecules of the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Chromosome: A cellular structure carrying genetic materials, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Has one long protein ans associated proteins.
Contractile Vacuole: A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain fresh water protists.
Desmosome: A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as a rivit.
Dyneim: In cilia and flagella, a large contractile protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet.
Gap Junction: A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells.
Granum: A stack of membrane-bounded thylakoids in the chloroplast. Function in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Microfiliment: A cable composed of actin proteins in the cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell, making up part of the cytoskeleton. Causes cell contraction.
Microtubule: A hollow rod composed of tubulin proteins that make up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells and is found in the cilia and flagella.
Middle Lamella: In plants, a thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pecting, found between the primary walls of adjacent young cells.
Mitochondrial Matrix: The compartment of mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle.
Nucleoid: A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
Peroxisome: An organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen producing and the degrading hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Phagocytosis: A type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell.
Plasmodesma: An open channel in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
Primary Cell Wall: In plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell.
Secondary Cell Wall: In plants, a strong and durable matrix, often deposited in several laminated layers fort cell protection and support.
Stroma: Within the chloroplast, the dense fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in synthesis of organic molecules from CO2 and H2O.
Thylakoid: A flattened membranous sac inside ta chloroplast. Interconnected system and contain molecular "machinery" used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Tight Junction: A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
Tonoplast: A membrane that binds the chief vacuole of a plant cell.
Tour of an Animal Cell Video: