Monday, December 8, 2008

Chapter 10 Vocab

Congratulations on getting through BIO today! Three quizzes and an essay were rough, but now that we are done, the rest of the week is easy in comparison. Now, onto Chapter 10: Photosynthesis. Here is the Chapter 10 Vocabulary to get us started:

CAM Plant: A type of plan that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. In this process, carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted to organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
C4 Plant: A type of plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle.

Photorespiration: A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
Rubisco: Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP).

Carotenoid: An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants and in some prokaryotes. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll b: An accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
Mesophyll: The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
NADP+: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, An electron acceptor that, as NADPH, temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
Mesophyll cell: In C4 plants, a type of loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface.C3 Plant: A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
Chlorophyll a: A photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
Carbon fixation: The initial incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote).
Stomata: Microscopic pores surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allow gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
PEP carboxylase: An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.
Absorption spectrum: The range of a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths of light; also a graph of such a range.
Action spectrum: A graph that profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.
Photophosphorylation: The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated across the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or the membrane of certain prokaryotes during the light reactions of photosynthesis.

Bundle sheath cell: in C4 plants, a type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of A leaf.

photo- light
meso- middle
auto- self
Looking Ahead....
This Week:
Chapter 10 Vocab due tomorrow
Chapter 10 Vocab quiz Wednesday
Next Week:
Chapter 10 open book quizzes Monday
Chapter 10 essay Monday
BIO Final B-block 1:00-3:00 Thursday
BIO Final C-block 8:30-10:30 Friday
Six more days of class until Winter Break!!!! Hang in there!

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